Flutter制作自己的第一个全平台APP学习之Networking篇

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摘要

这一篇文章主要是学习flutter中的Networking相关,也就是各种如打开网址,输入网址打开,获取数据,发送数据,绑定api等等,伯衡君通过一些实例,确实掌握了其中不少实用技巧,分享给大家……

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Flutter制作自己的第一个全平台APP学习之Networking篇

开篇寄语

这一篇文章主要是学习flutter中的Networking相关,也就是各种如打开网址,输入网址打开,获取数据,发送数据,绑定api等等,伯衡君通过一些实例,确实掌握了其中不少实用技巧,分享给大家。

前情提要

内容详情

以下内容大多是更改lib下的main.dart文件内容,删掉里面的内容,复制粘贴代码,开启调试就可以出现了。

Webview

  • 不通过浏览器打开浏览一个网页,这个在flutter中可以使用url_launcher这个支撑库,安装和使用可以参看这个地址:
  • 安装完成后,试举一例:
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:url_launcher/url_launcher.dart';

void main() => runApp(MyApp());

class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return MaterialApp(
      title: 'Flutter Demo',
      home: _SizedBoxExample(),
    );
  }
}

class _SizedBoxExample extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Scaffold(
      appBar: AppBar(
        title: Text('Flutter Demo'),
      ),
      body: Center(
        child: ElevatedButton(
          onPressed: _launchURL,
          child: Text('Open Google'),
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

_launchURL() async {
  final Uri uri = Uri(
    scheme: 'https',
    path: 'www.google.com',
    queryParameters: {'name': 'google dot com', 'about': 'Flutter Dart'},
  );
  const url = "https://www.google.com/";
  if (await canLaunch(url)) {
    await launch(uri.toString());
  } else {
    print('Could not launch $url');
  }
}

生成效果如下图所示:

fetching data

  • 通过Api,接收数据,这个需要先安装一个名为http的flutter支持库,安装和使用例子,可以参看这个链接:
  • 试举例如下:
import 'dart:async';
import 'dart:convert';

import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:http/http.dart' as http;

Future<Album> fetchAlbum() async {
  final response =
      await http.get(Uri.parse('https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com/posts/1'));

// Appropriate action depending upon the
// server response
  if (response.statusCode == 200) {
    return Album.fromJson(json.decode(response.body));
  } else {
    throw Exception('Failed to load album');
  }
}

class Album {
  final int userId;
  final int id;
  final String title;
  final String body;

  Album(
      {required this.userId,
      required this.id,
      required this.title,
      required this.body});

  factory Album.fromJson(Map<String, dynamic> json) {
    return Album(
      userId: json['userId'],
      id: json['id'],
      title: json['title'],
      body: json['body'],
    );
  }
}

void main() => runApp(MyApp());

class MyApp extends StatefulWidget {
  MyApp({Key? key}) : super(key: key);

  @override
  _MyAppState createState() => _MyAppState();
}

class _MyAppState extends State<MyApp> {
  late Future<Album> futureAlbum;

  @override
  void initState() {
    super.initState();
    futureAlbum = fetchAlbum();
  }

  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return MaterialApp(
      title: 'Fetching Data',
      theme: ThemeData(
        primarySwatch: Colors.blue,
      ),
      home: Scaffold(
        appBar: AppBar(
          title: Text('Flutter Demo'),
        ),
        body: Center(
          child: FutureBuilder<Album>(
            future: futureAlbum,
            builder: (context, snapshot) {
              if (snapshot.hasData) {
                return Text(snapshot.data!.body);
              } else if (snapshot.hasError) {
                return Text("${snapshot.error}");
              }
              return CircularProgressIndicator();
            },
          ),
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

生成效果如下图所示:

Flutter制作自己的第一个全平台APP学习之Networking篇

sending data

  • 通过Api,传递数据,这个需要先安装一个名为http的flutter支持库,安装和使用例子,可以参看这个链接:
  • 试举例如下:
import 'dart:async';
import 'dart:convert';

import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:http/http.dart' as http;

Future<Album> createAlbum(String title) async {
  final response = await http.post(
    Uri.parse('https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com/albums'),
    headers: <String, String>{
      'Content-Type': 'application/json; charset=UTF-8',
    },
    body: jsonEncode(<String, String>{
      'title': title,
    }),
  );

  if (response.statusCode == 201) {
    // If the server did return a 201 CREATED response,
    // then parse the JSON.
    return Album.fromJson(jsonDecode(response.body));
  } else {
    // If the server did not return a 201 CREATED response,
    // then throw an exception.
    throw Exception('Failed to create album.');
  }
}

class Album {
  final int id;
  final String title;

  Album({required this.id, required this.title});

  factory Album.fromJson(Map<String, dynamic> json) {
    return Album(
      id: json['id'],
      title: json['title'],
    );
  }
}

void main() {
  runApp(MyApp());
}

class MyApp extends StatefulWidget {
  MyApp({Key? key}) : super(key: key);

  @override
  _MyAppState createState() {
    return _MyAppState();
  }
}

class _MyAppState extends State<MyApp> {
  final TextEditingController _controller = TextEditingController();
  Future<Album>? _futureAlbum;

  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return MaterialApp(
      title: 'Create Data Example',
      theme: ThemeData(
        primarySwatch: Colors.blue,
      ),
      home: Scaffold(
        appBar: AppBar(
          title: Text('Create Data Example'),
        ),
        body: Container(
          alignment: Alignment.center,
          padding: const EdgeInsets.all(8.0),
          child: (_futureAlbum == null) ? buildColumn() : buildFutureBuilder(),
        ),
      ),
    );
  }

  Column buildColumn() {
    return Column(
      mainAxisAlignment: MainAxisAlignment.center,
      children: <Widget>[
        TextField(
          controller: _controller,
          decoration: InputDecoration(hintText: 'Enter Title'),
        ),
        ElevatedButton(
          onPressed: () {
            setState(() {
              _futureAlbum = createAlbum(_controller.text);
            });
          },
          child: Text('Create Data'),
        ),
      ],
    );
  }

  FutureBuilder<Album> buildFutureBuilder() {
    return FutureBuilder<Album>(
      future: _futureAlbum,
      builder: (context, snapshot) {
        if (snapshot.hasData) {
          return Text(snapshot.data!.title);
        } else if (snapshot.hasError) {
          return Text('${snapshot.error}');
        }

        return CircularProgressIndicator();
      },
    );
  }
}

生成效果如下图所示:

接下来结合一个实例,即利用Google Books Api来制作一个图书查询的app,完整代码如下:

import 'dart:async';
import 'dart:convert';

import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:http/http.dart' as http;

const url =
    'https://www.googleapis.com/books/v1/volumes?q=harry+potter+inauthor:rowling';

void main() => runApp(MyApp());

class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return MaterialApp(
      title: 'Book Finder',
      theme: ThemeData(
        primarySwatch: Colors.blue,
      ),
      home: BookFinderPage(),
    );
  }
}

class BookFinderPage extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Scaffold(
      appBar: AppBar(
        title: Text('Book Finder'),
        leading: Icon(Icons.book),
      ),
      body: FutureBuilder(
          future: _fetchPotterBooks(),
          builder: (context, AsyncSnapshot<List<Book>> snapshot) {
            if (snapshot.connectionState == ConnectionState.done) {
              if (snapshot.hasError) {
                return Center(child: Text('Error: ${snapshot.error}'));
              } else {
                return ListView(
                    children: snapshot.data!.map((b) => BookTile(b)).toList());
              }
            } else {
              return Center(child: CircularProgressIndicator());
            }
          }),
    );
  }
}

class BookTile extends StatelessWidget {
  final Book book;
  BookTile(this.book);

  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return ListTile(
      leading: CircleAvatar(
        backgroundImage:
            NetworkImage(book.thumbnailUrl.replaceAll("http:", "https:")),
      ),
      title: Text(book.title),
      subtitle: Text(book.author),
      onTap: () => _navigateToDetailsPage(book, context),
    );
  }
}

Future<List<Book>> _fetchPotterBooks() async {
  final res = await http.get(Uri.parse(url));
  if (res.statusCode == 200) {
    return _parseBookJson(res.body);
  } else {
    throw Exception('Error: ${res.statusCode}');
  }
}

List<Book> _parseBookJson(String jsonStr) {
  final jsonMap = json.decode(jsonStr);
  final jsonList = (jsonMap['items'] as List);
  return jsonList
      .map((jsonBook) => Book(
            title: jsonBook['volumeInfo']['title'],
            author: (jsonBook['volumeInfo']['authors'] as List).join(', '),
            thumbnailUrl: jsonBook['volumeInfo']['imageLinks']
                ['smallThumbnail'],
          ))
      .toList();
}

class Book {
  final String title;
  final String author;
  final String thumbnailUrl;

  Book({required this.title, required this.author, required this.thumbnailUrl})
      // ignore: unnecessary_null_comparison
      : assert(title != null),
        // ignore: unnecessary_null_comparison
        assert(author != null);
}

void _navigateToDetailsPage(Book book, BuildContext context) {
  Navigator.of(context).push(MaterialPageRoute(
    builder: (context) => BookDetailsPage(book),
  ));
}

class BookDetailsPage extends StatelessWidget {
  final Book book;
  BookDetailsPage(this.book);

  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Scaffold(
      appBar: AppBar(title: Text(book.title)),
      body: Padding(
        padding: const EdgeInsets.all(15.0),
        child: BookDetails(book),
      ),
    );
  }
}

class BookDetails extends StatelessWidget {
  final Book book;
  BookDetails(this.book);

  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Center(
      child: Column(
        mainAxisAlignment: MainAxisAlignment.start,
        children: [
          Image.network(book.thumbnailUrl),
          SizedBox(height: 10.0),
          Text(book.title),
          Padding(
            padding: const EdgeInsets.only(top: 10.0),
            child: Text(book.author,
                style: TextStyle(fontWeight: FontWeight.w700)),
          ),
        ],
      ),
    );
  }
}

生成效果如下图所示:

Flutter制作自己的第一个全平台APP学习之Networking篇

可能在运行的时候,会出现图片无法显示的问题,提示错误如下:

Flutter web can't load network image from another domain

只需要在terminal输入以下内容运行即可:

flutter build web --release --web-renderer html

下拉加载数据

  • 在制作App中,下拉加载数据,这种情况很常见,所以这个需要掌握,试举一例:
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'dart:convert';
// import the http package
import 'package:http/http.dart' as http;

void main() {
  runApp(MyApp());
}

class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return MaterialApp(
      // Hide the debug banner
      debugShowCheckedModeBanner: false,
      title: 'Flutter Demo',
      home: HomePage(),
    );
  }
}

class HomePage extends StatefulWidget {
  @override
  _HomePageState createState() => _HomePageState();
}

class _HomePageState extends State<HomePage> {
  // The initial todos
  List _todos = [];

  // Call this when the user pull down the screen
  Future<void> _loadData() async {
    final url = 'https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com/todos';
    try {
      final http.Response response = await http.get(Uri.parse(url));
      final _loadedTodos = json.decode(response.body);
      setState(() {
        _todos = _loadedTodos;
      });
    } catch (err) {
      throw err;
    }
  }

  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Scaffold(
      appBar: AppBar(
        title: Text('Flutter Demo'),
      ),
      body: RefreshIndicator(
          // trigger the _loadData function when the user pulls down
          onRefresh: _loadData,
          // Render the todos
          child: ListView.builder(
              itemCount: _todos.length,
              itemBuilder: (BuildContext ctx, index) {
                return Card(
                  margin: EdgeInsets.symmetric(horizontal: 15, vertical: 8),
                  child: ListTile(
                    // Render each todo
                    leading: Text(_todos[index]['id'].toString()),
                    title: Text(_todos[index]["title"]),
                    trailing: _todos[index]["completed"]
                        ? Icon(
                            Icons.check_circle,
                            color: Colors.blue,
                          )
                        : Icon(
                            Icons.circle,
                            color: Colors.yellow,
                          ),
                  ),
                );
              })),
    );
  }
}

生成效果如下图所示:

下载图片

  • 这个功能也常常用到,可以参看以下代码:
import 'dart:convert';
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:http/http.dart' as http;

// if you don't add universal_html to your dependencies you should
// write import 'dart:html' as html; instead
import 'package:universal_html/html.dart' as html;

void main() => runApp(MyApp());

class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return MaterialApp(
      title: 'Flutter Demo',
      debugShowCheckedModeBanner: false,
      theme: ThemeData(
        primarySwatch: Colors.blue,
      ),
      home: MyHomePage(),
    );
  }
}

class MyHomePage extends StatefulWidget {
  @override
  _MyHomePageState createState() => _MyHomePageState();
}

class _MyHomePageState extends State<MyHomePage> {
  final imageUrls = <String>[
    'https://images.pexels.com/photos/208745/pexels-photo-208745.jpeg?auto=compress&cs=tinysrgb&dpr=2&h=650&w=940',
    'https://images.pexels.com/photos/1470707/pexels-photo-1470707.jpeg?auto=compress&cs=tinysrgb&dpr=2&h=650&w=940',
    'https://images.pexels.com/photos/2671089/pexels-photo-2671089.jpeg?auto=compress&cs=tinysrgb&dpr=2&h=650&w=940',
    'https://images.pexels.com/photos/2670273/pexels-photo-2670273.jpeg?auto=compress&cs=tinysrgb&dpr=2&h=650&w=940',
  ];

  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Scaffold(
      body: GridView.count(
        crossAxisCount: 2,
        children: imageUrls
            .map(
              (imageUrl) => ImageCard(imageUrl: imageUrl),
            )
            .toList(),
      ),
    );
  }
}

class ImageCard extends StatefulWidget {
  @override
  _ImageCardState createState() => _ImageCardState();

  final String imageUrl;
  ImageCard({
    required this.imageUrl,
  });
}

class _ImageCardState extends State<ImageCard> {
  Future<void> downloadImage(String imageUrl) async {
    try {
      // first we make a request to the url like you did
      // in the android and ios version
      final http.Response r = await http.get(
        Uri.parse(imageUrl),
      );

      // we get the bytes from the body
      final data = r.bodyBytes;
      // and encode them to base64
      final base64data = base64Encode(data);

      // then we create and AnchorElement with the html package
      final a = html.AnchorElement(href: 'data:image/jpeg;base64,$base64data');

      // set the name of the file we want the image to get
      // downloaded to
      a.download = 'download.jpg';

      // and we click the AnchorElement which downloads the image
      a.click();
      // finally we remove the AnchorElement
      a.remove();
    } catch (e) {
      print(e);
    }
  }

  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return InkWell(
      onTap: () => downloadImage(widget.imageUrl),
      child: Card(
        child: Image.network(
          widget.imageUrl,
          fit: BoxFit.cover,
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

生成效果如下图所示:

Flutter制作自己的第一个全平台APP学习之Networking篇
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