Flutter制作自己的第一个全平台APP学习之多媒体篇

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摘要

这一篇文章主要是学习flutter中放置各种媒体资源,放置各种影音文件,网络图片等等,当然在App中,表现的形式也是千变万化……

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Flutter制作自己的第一个全平台APP学习之多媒体篇

开篇寄语

这一篇文章主要是学习flutter中放置各种媒体资源,放置各种影音文件,网络图片等等,当然在App中,表现的形式也是千变万化。

前情提要

内容详情

以下内容大多是更改lib下的main.dart文件内容,删掉里面的内容,复制粘贴代码,开启调试就可以出现了。

Video

  • flutter应用有一个库是video player,支持很多种格式的多媒体文件,尤其是视频文件,从官方的指导范例的一例来看一下。

先要安装video player这个支撑库,在pubspec.yaml文件,添加库:

dependencies:
  video_player: ^2.1.6

接着添加android和ios视频调用权限,iOS的调试在模拟器中无法实现,只能真机查看效果,Android系统在android/app/src/main/中的AndroidManifest.xml文件添加以下代码<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.INTERNET"/>:

<manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android">
    <application ...>

    </application>

    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.INTERNET"/>
</manifest>

iOS系统在ios/Runner/中的Info.plist文件添加以下代码:

<key>NSAppTransportSecurity</key>
<dict>
  <key>NSAllowsArbitraryLoads</key>
  <true/>
</dict>

接着在main.dart文件输入以下代码:

import 'dart:async';

import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:video_player/video_player.dart';

void main() => runApp(VideoPlayerApp());

class VideoPlayerApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return MaterialApp(
      title: 'Video Player Demo',
      home: VideoPlayerScreen(),
    );
  }
}

class VideoPlayerScreen extends StatefulWidget {
  VideoPlayerScreen({Key? key}) : super(key: key);

  @override
  _VideoPlayerScreenState createState() => _VideoPlayerScreenState();
}

class _VideoPlayerScreenState extends State<VideoPlayerScreen> {
  late VideoPlayerController _controller;
  late Future<void> _initializeVideoPlayerFuture;

  @override
  void initState() {
    // Create and store the VideoPlayerController. The VideoPlayerController
    // offers several different constructors to play videos from assets, files,
    // or the internet.
    _controller = VideoPlayerController.network(
      'https://flutter.github.io/assets-for-api-docs/assets/videos/butterfly.mp4',
    );

    // Initialize the controller and store the Future for later use.
    _initializeVideoPlayerFuture = _controller.initialize();

    // Use the controller to loop the video.
    _controller.setLooping(true);

    super.initState();
  }

  @override
  void dispose() {
    // Ensure disposing of the VideoPlayerController to free up resources.
    _controller.dispose();

    super.dispose();
  }

  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Scaffold(
      appBar: AppBar(
        title: Text('Butterfly Video'),
      ),
      // Use a FutureBuilder to display a loading spinner while waiting for the
      // VideoPlayerController to finish initializing.
      body: FutureBuilder(
        future: _initializeVideoPlayerFuture,
        builder: (context, snapshot) {
          if (snapshot.connectionState == ConnectionState.done) {
            // If the VideoPlayerController has finished initialization, use
            // the data it provides to limit the aspect ratio of the video.
            return AspectRatio(
              aspectRatio: _controller.value.aspectRatio,
              // Use the VideoPlayer widget to display the video.
              child: VideoPlayer(_controller),
            );
          } else {
            // If the VideoPlayerController is still initializing, show a
            // loading spinner.
            return Center(child: CircularProgressIndicator());
          }
        },
      ),
      floatingActionButton: FloatingActionButton(
        onPressed: () {
          // Wrap the play or pause in a call to `setState`. This ensures the
          // correct icon is shown.
          setState(() {
            // If the video is playing, pause it.
            if (_controller.value.isPlaying) {
              _controller.pause();
            } else {
              // If the video is paused, play it.
              _controller.play();
            }
          });
        },
        // Display the correct icon depending on the state of the player.
        child: Icon(
          _controller.value.isPlaying ? Icons.pause : Icons.play_arrow,
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

生成效果如下图所示:

Flutter制作自己的第一个全平台APP学习之多媒体篇

music

  • video player这个插件除了支持播放视频,还能支持播放音频,按照以上的方法添加支持依赖,增加权限命令后,main.dart文件中输入以下代码:
import 'dart:async';

import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:video_player/video_player.dart';

void main() => runApp(VideoPlayerApp());

class VideoPlayerApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return MaterialApp(
      title: 'Video Player Demo',
      home: VideoPlayerScreen(),
    );
  }
}

class VideoPlayerScreen extends StatefulWidget {
  VideoPlayerScreen({Key? key}) : super(key: key);

  @override
  _VideoPlayerScreenState createState() => _VideoPlayerScreenState();
}

class _VideoPlayerScreenState extends State<VideoPlayerScreen> {
  late VideoPlayerController _controller;
  late Future<void> _initializeVideoPlayerFuture;

  @override
  void initState() {
    // Using an mp3 file instead of mp4.
    _controller = VideoPlayerController.network(
      'http://sp.9sky.com/convert/song/music/1027952/20210506105039040.mp3',
    );

    _initializeVideoPlayerFuture = _controller.initialize();

    _controller.setLooping(true);

    super.initState();
  }

  @override
  void dispose() {
    _controller.dispose();

    super.dispose();
  }

  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Scaffold(
      appBar: AppBar(
        title: Text('Butterfly Video'),
      ),
      body: FutureBuilder(
        future: _initializeVideoPlayerFuture,
        builder: (context, snapshot) {
          if (snapshot.connectionState == ConnectionState.done) {
            // not wrapped in an AspectRatio widget
            return VideoPlayer(_controller);
          } else {
            return Center(child: CircularProgressIndicator());
          }
        },
      ),
      floatingActionButton: FloatingActionButton(
        onPressed: () {
          setState(() {
            if (_controller.value.isPlaying) {
              _controller.pause();
            } else {
              _controller.play();
            }
          });
        },
        child: Icon(
          _controller.value.isPlaying ? Icons.pause : Icons.play_arrow,
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

生成的效果未见播放内容,但是点击播放键可以播放音乐的声音,大家可以换上自己的自定义播放地址来测试。

网络地址加载图片

  • 此前介绍过如何从本地加载图片,其实还可以加载网络地址中的图片,试举例如下:
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

void main() => runApp(MyApp());

class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    var title = 'Web Images';

    return MaterialApp(
      title: title,
      home: Scaffold(
        appBar: AppBar(
          title: Text(title),
        ),
        body: Image.network('https://picsum.photos/250?image=9'),
      ),
    );
  }
}

生成的效果如下图所示:

Flutter制作自己的第一个全平台APP学习之多媒体篇

带有视频控件的播放器

  • video player虽是flutter的官方支持库,但是在表现上与一个名为chewie的插件相比稍逊风骚,在视频控制上的功能支持表现好得多,试举例如下:

首先是安装chewie的支撑库,在pubspec.yaml文件添加,前提是已经安装好video_player哦,代码如下:

dependencies:
  chewie: ^1.2.2

之后在lib文件夹下新建一个文件,命名为chewie_list_item.dart,输入以下代码:

import 'package:chewie/chewie.dart';
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:video_player/video_player.dart';

class ChewieListItem extends StatefulWidget {
  // This will contain the URL/asset path which we want to play
  final VideoPlayerController videoPlayerController;
  final bool looping;

  ChewieListItem({
    required this.videoPlayerController,
    this.looping = true,
    Key? key,
  }) : super(key: key);

  @override
  _ChewieListItemState createState() => _ChewieListItemState();
}

class _ChewieListItemState extends State<ChewieListItem> {
  late ChewieController _chewieController;

  @override
  void initState() {
    super.initState();
    // Wrapper on top of the videoPlayerController
    _chewieController = ChewieController(
      videoPlayerController: widget.videoPlayerController,
      aspectRatio: 16 / 9,
      // Prepare the video to be played and display the first frame
      autoInitialize: true,
      looping: widget.looping,
      // Errors can occur for example when trying to play a video
      // from a non-existent URL
      errorBuilder: (context, errorMessage) {
        return Center(
          child: Text(
            errorMessage,
            style: TextStyle(color: Colors.white),
          ),
        );
      },
    );
  }

  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Padding(
      padding: const EdgeInsets.all(8.0),
      child: Chewie(
        controller: _chewieController,
      ),
    );
  }

  @override
  void dispose() {
    super.dispose();
    // IMPORTANT to dispose of all the used resources
    widget.videoPlayerController.dispose();
    _chewieController.dispose();
  }
}

之后在main.dart文件内放置以下代码:

import 'chewie_list_item.dart';
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:video_player/video_player.dart';

void main() => runApp(MyApp());

class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return MaterialApp(
      title: 'Flutter Demo',
      theme: ThemeData(
        primarySwatch: Colors.blue,
      ),
      home: MyHomePage(),
    );
  }
}

class MyHomePage extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Scaffold(
      appBar: AppBar(
        title: Text('Video Player'),
      ),
      body: ListView(
        children: <Widget>[
          ChewieListItem(
            videoPlayerController: VideoPlayerController.network(
              'http://commondatastorage.googleapis.com/gtv-videos-bucket/sample/BigBuckBunny.mp4',
            ),
          ),
        ],
      ),
    );
  }
}

生成效果如下图所示:

Flutter制作自己的第一个全平台APP学习之多媒体篇

带有加载动画的图片

  • 加载图片前如果图片太大,可以放置前置加载动画以使得应用有连贯性,试举例如下:

可以前面放一个加载动图,这样也相对简单,从官方给出的示例就可以看到,代码如下:

import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

void main() {
  runApp(MyApp());
}

class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    final title = 'Fade in images';

    return MaterialApp(
      title: title,
      home: Scaffold(
        appBar: AppBar(
          title: Text(title),
        ),
        body: Center(
          child: FadeInImage.assetNetwork(
            placeholder: 'assets/loading.gif',
            image: 'https://picsum.photos/250?image=9',
          ),
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

生成的效果如下图所示:

Flutter制作自己的第一个全平台APP学习之多媒体篇

有一个支持库,名为transparent_image,简单的转圈加载动画,但是效果却是很好,试举例如下:

首先是安装transparent_image这个库,可以从pub.dev这个网站找到它,安装完成后,在main.dart文件使用如下代码:

import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:transparent_image/transparent_image.dart';

void main() {
  runApp(MyApp());
}

class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    final title = 'Fade in images';

    return MaterialApp(
      title: title,
      home: Scaffold(
        appBar: AppBar(
          title: Text(title),
        ),
        body: Stack(
          children: <Widget>[
            Center(child: CircularProgressIndicator()),
            Center(
              child: FadeInImage.memoryNetwork(
                placeholder: kTransparentImage,
                image: 'https://picsum.photos/250?image=9',
              ),
            ),
          ],
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

生成效果如下图所示:

Flutter制作自己的第一个全平台APP学习之多媒体篇

可以看到会有一段加载动画,之后就能显示图片了。

圆形图片

  • 装点美化图片的作用,而且实现的方法也很简单,试举例如下:
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

void main() {
  runApp(MyApp());
}

class MyApp extends StatefulWidget {
  @override
  _MyAppState createState() => _MyAppState();
}

class _MyAppState extends State<MyApp> {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return MaterialApp(
      debugShowCheckedModeBanner: false,
      home: Scaffold(
        appBar: AppBar(
          title: Text('Flutter Buttons - FlatButton'),
        ),
        body: Center(
          child: ClipRRect(
            borderRadius: BorderRadius.circular(800),
            child: Image.network(
              'https://cdn.pixabay.com/photo/2017/05/31/18/38/sea-2361247_960_720.jpg',
              width: 400,
              height: 400,
              fit: BoxFit.cover,
            ),
          ),
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

生成效果如下图所示:

Flutter制作自己的第一个全平台APP学习之多媒体篇

在图片上带有标题

  • 这个模式在日常编写App中也常常用到,试举例如下:
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

void main() {
  runApp(MyApp());
}

class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return MaterialApp(
      // Hide the debug banner
      debugShowCheckedModeBanner: false,
      title: 'Flutter Demo',
      home: MyHomePage(),
    );
  }
}

class MyHomePage extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Scaffold(
        appBar: AppBar(
          title: Text("Flutter Demo"),
        ),
        body: Stack(
          children: [
            Image.network(
                'https://images.unsplash.com/photo-1444703686981-a3abbc4d4fe3?ixid=MnwxMjA3fDB8MHxzZWFyY2h8MXx8cGljfGVufDB8fDB8fA%3D%3D&ixlib=rb-1.2.1&auto=format&fit=crop&w=800&q=60',
                width: double.infinity,
                height: 250,
                fit: BoxFit.cover),
            Positioned(
              // The Positioned widget is used to position the text inside the Stack widget
              bottom: 10,
              right: 10,

              child: Container(
                // We use this Container to create a black box that wraps the white text so that the user can read the text even when the image is white
                width: 300,
                color: Colors.black54,
                padding: EdgeInsets.all(10),
                child: Text(
                  'I Like Potatoes And Oranges',
                  style: TextStyle(fontSize: 20, color: Colors.white),
                ),
              ),
            )
          ],
        ));
  }
}

生成效果如下图所示:

Flutter制作自己的第一个全平台APP学习之多媒体篇

除了使用stack,还可以使用SizedBox这个模块实现,试举例如下:

import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

void main() {
  runApp(MyApp());
}

class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return MaterialApp(
      // Hide the debug banner
      debugShowCheckedModeBanner: false,
      title: 'Flutter Demo',
      home: MyHomePage(),
    );
  }
}

class MyHomePage extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Scaffold(
      appBar: AppBar(
        title: Text("Flutter Demo"),
      ),
      body: SizedBox(
        width: double.infinity,
        height: 250,
        child: GridTile(
          child: Image.network(
              'https://cdn.pixabay.com/photo/2020/10/09/19/39/utah-5641320_960_720.jpg',
              width: double.infinity,
              height: 250,
              fit: BoxFit.cover),
          footer: Container(
            // You can use GridTileBar instead
            child: Text(
              'This Is A Beautiful Photo',
              style: TextStyle(
                  color: Colors.white,
                  fontSize: 18,
                  fontWeight: FontWeight.bold),
              textAlign: TextAlign.right,
            ),
            width: double.infinity,
            padding: EdgeInsets.symmetric(horizontal: 20, vertical: 15),
            color: Colors.black54,
          ),
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

加载本地txt文档

  • 本地有一个名为counter.txt文件,里面有一串演示的文案,要想加载本地的文档,需要提前在pubspec.yaml文件中添加引导路径,就如之前添加图片路径引导一样,示例如下:
  assets:
      - assets/counter.txt

添加文件夹及文件在主目录中,参考如图:

Flutter制作自己的第一个全平台APP学习之多媒体篇

接着在main.dart文件添加代码:

import 'dart:async';
import 'dart:convert';
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:flutter/services.dart';

void main() => runApp(MyApp());

class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return MaterialApp(
      title: 'Flutter Questions',
      theme: ThemeData(
        primarySwatch: Colors.blue,
      ),
      home: MyAppScreen(),
    );
  }
}

class MyAppScreen extends StatefulWidget {
  @override
  State<StatefulWidget> createState() {
    return MyAppScreenState();
  }
}

class MyAppScreenState extends State<MyAppScreen> {
  List<String> _questions = [];

  Future<List<String>> _loadQuestions() async {
    List<String> questions = [];
    await rootBundle.loadString('assets/counter.txt').then((q) {
      for (String i in LineSplitter().convert(q)) {
        questions.add(i);
      }
    });
    return questions;
  }

  @override
  void initState() {
    _setup();
    super.initState();
  }

  _setup() async {
    // Retrieve the questions (Processed in the background)
    List<String> questions = await _loadQuestions();

    // Notify the UI and display the questions
    setState(() {
      _questions = questions;
    });
  }

  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Scaffold(
      appBar: AppBar(title: Text("Flutter Questions")),
      body: Center(
        child: Container(
          child: ListView.builder(
            itemCount: _questions.length,
            itemBuilder: (context, index) {
              return Text(_questions[index]);
            },
          ),
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

生成效果如下图所示:

Flutter制作自己的第一个全平台APP学习之多媒体篇
  • 我的微信
  • 微信扫一扫加好友
  • weinxin
  • 我的微信公众号
  • 扫描关注公众号
  • weinxin

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